Quotations of Dr. Arnold Toynbee
China’s past achievement and historical experience have endowed it with the qualifications that the West so conspicuously lacks. On the strength of that achievement, China has a more promising chance of shepherding mankind into political unity than any other country.
◎汤恩比博士简介（Biography of Dr. Arnold J. Toynbee）:
阿罗德．约瑟．汤恩比（1889-1975）是英国著名历史学家。他毕业于牛津大学，任伦敦大学的希腊语和历史学教授。曾代表英国政府参加两次世界大战后的和平会议。他发表过约三千篇论文著作，主要学术贡献是十二册的巨著《历史研究》（A Study of History），从社会文明发展的角度来研究历史。他认为，社会文明的衰落源于无法胜任道德与宗教的挑战，而非物质与环境的挑战。
(1) The religions that can salvage mankind
“… the founders of the less crude religions and philosophies have perceived that the nature of divinity is not power but love, benevolence, and humanity. The Buddha, the Bodhisattvas, and Christ stand not for the exercise of power but for self-abnegation and self-sacrifice. Confucianism and Shinto stand for a harmonious co-operation between man and nature; Taoism for letting nature takes her course, undisturbed by impertinent and clumsy human interference. Surely the Weltanschauung that follows from these more perceptive and less aggressive religious and philosophical traditions is the one that now offers the most promising hope of salvaging mankind. The injunction to “subdue,” which modern man has taken as his directive, is immoral, impractical, and disastrous.”
Source: Toynbee, Arnold, 1973, The Genesis of Pollution, Horizon, Volume 15, No. 3, summer issue, pp.4-9.
出处：汤恩比， A. 1973, 《污染的起源》，文出自《地平线》杂志，第15册第3期，4-9页。
(2) Who is the Inheritor of the Earth?
The course of Chinese history has been cyclical; yet China has been more successful than the west in solving two crucial problems: it as succeeded for centuries in holding together millions of people in relatively stable domestic peace and order, and it has also succeeded in assimilating a foreign ideology, Buddhism, in a way that enriched the indigenous civilization.
For more than five centuries China was split into a number of competing local states. But in 221 B.C. the country was unified politically, and since then ins political unity has never been more than temporarily disrupted, while its cultural unity has never been lost.
As early as the second century B.C., the emperor Han Wu-ti realized that China's political unity must be buttressed by the creation of a professional civil service in which the qualification for entry would be merit, and the test of merit he chose was a proficiency in Confucian philosophy.
In the twentieth century mankind is in much the same state of mind as the Chinese were in the third century B.C. We are the prisoners of an age-old habit of political disunity and of consequent warfare between competing local states. This habit has become so deeply ingrained that we are reluctant to be liberated from it; yet we now recognize that if we fail to unite politically on a global scale, the “annihilation of distance may result in the annihilation of life.
Dare we hope that China will meet the world's desperate need? Since the disintegration of the Roman Empire, Western statesmanship has been dedicated not to re-establishing political unity but to frustrating attempts to reattain it. The West has deliberately disqualified itself for unifying the world politically. China's past achievement and historical experience have endowed it with the qualifications that the West so conspicuously lacks. On the strength of that achievement, China has a more promising chance of shepherding mankind into political unity than any other country.
Source: Toynbee, Arnold, 1974, Inheritors of the Earth? Horizon, volume 16, No.3, summer, pp.18-19.
出处：汤恩比，A. 1973, 《地球的继承人？》，文出自《地平线》杂志，第16册第3期，18-19页。